wand is an essential tool used by wizards and witches to channel magical powers. Most spells are done with the aid of wands. It is possible to do magic without a wand, but is very difficult and requires much concentration and incredible skill. Only advanced wizards can perform spells without the use of wands.[1] Wands are "quasi-sentient," and as close to animate as an object can get because they are imbued with a great deal of magic.[2]
Although the wand cores may come from the same creature, or the wood may come from the same tree, no two existing wands are exactly alike.

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Wands and wandloreEdit
Wandlore is a specific class of magic that refers to the history and magical properties of wands. Mr. Ollivander claims that it is a "complex and mysterious branch of magic."[3] The idea that a wand chooses the wizard is a part of wandlore, as is the idea that wands can switch allegiance.

Hermione Granger's wand (vine wood, 10¾ inches, dragon heartstring).
Added by You-Know-Who

Blackthorn wand
Added by Eaters
Generally, wands are long, thin rods of wood with a magical substance embedded into their core. Some of the woods used include holly, hawthorn, oak, cherry, vine, rosewood, blackthorn, willow, ash, mahogany, yew, birch, and elder. The cores that have been documented are phoenix feather, dragon heartstring, Veela hair, unicorn hair, and Thestral tail hair. The wandmaker Ollivander mentioned that he did not use Veela hair, as it made for "temperamental" wands. It is possible that other magical substances may be used for cores, but none have yet been specified.
Other important characteristics of a wand are its length and its rigidity, ranging from "unyielding" to "springy." All of these different factors have some effect on the overall use of the wand itself, but it is currently unknown what they actually indeed do. The characteristics of a wand also seem to have some influence over which kinds of magic the wand is particularly suited for. For example, James Potter's wand was excellent at Transfiguration, and Lily Evans' wand was described as being nice for Charms work.

The exact process of making a wand is not known. Likely, it is as difficult and complex as wandlore itself.

General wand propertiesEdit

The wands of Dumbledore's Army.
Added by Arun Verma
In almost all documented cases, the wand chooses the wizard. This is due to the unique character of each wand, which must match that of the wizard, as the wizard may not be able to perform magic if his and his wand's characters conflict, or the magic may be sub-par to magic performed with the wizard's own wand.[3] When trying out different wands, an aspiring wizard may cause some damage when he encounters wands that don't get along with him.[4] Unfortunately, such trial and error is the only way to find a wand that matches the witch or wizard, and so Mr. Ollivander has become used to his store becoming damaged on a constant basis.
Since numbers have known magical properties, it's also possible that the wand's length have some symbolic meaning related to their owners, much like their core. For example, the wand of Tom Riddle, a reputed dark wizard, measures 13½ inches and thirteen is commonly an omen of misfortune or evil in the folklore and religion of various cultures around the world.

Examples of damage caused by "mismatched" wands were seen in 1991, where wand boxes flew off of shelves and banged into walls and when a glass jar on a shelf was shattered as a result of Harry Potter waving the wrong sort of wands. He tried out many wands before he found the one that chose him. Apparently, a warm feeling is felt when the wizard or witch chooses the right wand, and the wand sometimes emits a few sparks or does some similar small sign of magic.[4]

Ron Weasley with a broken wand.
Added by Oread
Wands are capable of changing masters. When a wand's master is disarmed, stunned, or killed, the wand may accept the old master's attacker as its new master. This is mostly observed in the Elder Wand, which, according to Albus Dumbledore, only respects power. The Elder Wand will transfer its allegience even if its defeated master is not in possession of it at the time. It is unknown if other wands share this trait.[3] Most wands share an affinity with their masters and will not easily discontinue their allegiance with the previous master if at all; furthermore, wands forcibly taken in circumstances of purely competitive or friendly nature, or are stolen without attacking the previous master will not change allegiance.[5]
Wands can be broken by spells or by physical damage. Wands in this condition will have greatly reduced magical abilities. Even when repaired, the wand's magic will not improve and the wand may break again while performing magic. The Elder Wand is able to completely repair broken wands, although this ability may be lost if the current master (Harry Potter) dies undefeated, as most of the wand's power would disappear with him.[3] Also, the wands can be activated and deactivated. For example, Hogwarts students should deactivate their wands in the corridors so that they do not use magic.[6]

Wands are quasi-sentient, meaning that while they cannot think or communicate like a human, they can perform certain actions through their own will. This could be how they choose their wizard/witch, and also explains how Harry's wand was able to act on its own against Voldemort.[3] Wands sometimes show hints of their personality, such as shyness (reluctance to get out of their box before being purchased).
- harrypotter.wikia.com/wiki/Wand